SpringCloud教程第3篇:feign

上一篇文章,讲述了如何通过RestTemplate+Ribbon去消费服务,这篇文章主要讲述如何通过Feign去消费服务。

一、Feign简介

Feign是一个声明式的伪Http客户端,它使得写Http客户端变得更简单。使用Feign,只需要创建一个接口并注解。它具有可插拔的注解特性,可使用Feign 注解和JAX-RS注解。Feign支持可插拔的编码器和解码器。Feign默认集成了Ribbon,并和Eureka结合,默认实现了负载均衡的效果。

简而言之:

  • Feign 采用的是基于接口的注解
  • Feign 整合了ribbon

二、准备工作

继续用上一节的工程, 启动eureka-server,端口为8761; 启动service-hi 两次,端口分别为8762 、8773.

三、创建一个feign的服务

新建一个spring-boot工程,取名为serice-feign,在它的pom文件引入Feign的起步依赖spring-cloud-starter-feign、Eureka的起步依赖spring-cloud-starter-eureka、Web的起步依赖spring-boot-starter-web,代码如下:

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

<groupId>com.forezp</groupId>
<artifactId>service-feign</artifactId>
<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
<packaging>jar</packaging>

<name>service-feign</name>
<description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>

<parent>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
<version>1.5.2.RELEASE</version>
<relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
</parent>

<properties>
<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
<project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
<java.version>1.8</java.version>
</properties>

<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-feign</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
</dependencies>

<dependencyManagement>
<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
<version>Dalston.RC1</version>
<type>pom</type>
<scope>import</scope>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
</dependencyManagement>

<build>
<plugins>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</build>

<repositories>
<repository>
<id>spring-milestones</id>
<name>Spring Milestones</name>
<url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url>
<snapshots>
<enabled>false</enabled>
</snapshots>
</repository>
</repositories>


</project>

在工程的配置文件application.yml文件,指定程序名为service-feign,端口号为8765,服务注册地址为http://localhost:8761/eureka/ ,代码如下:

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eureka:
client:
serviceUrl:
defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/
server:
port: 8765
spring:
application:
name: service-feign

在程序的启动类ServiceFeignApplication ,加上@EnableFeignClients注解开启Feign的功能:

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@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
@EnableFeignClients
public class ServiceFeignApplication {

public static void main(String[] args) {
SpringApplication.run(ServiceFeignApplication.class, args);
}
}


定义一个feign接口,通过@ FeignClient(“服务名”),来指定调用哪个服务。比如在代码中调用了service-hi服务的“/hi”接口,代码如下:

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/**
* Created by chris on 2017/4/6.
*/
@FeignClient(value = "service-hi")
public interface SchedualServiceHi {
@RequestMapping(value = "/hi",method = RequestMethod.GET)
String sayHiFromClientOne(@RequestParam(value = "name") String name);
}


在Web层的controller层,对外暴露一个”/hi”的API接口,通过上面定义的Feign客户端SchedualServiceHi 来消费服务。代码如下:

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@RestController
public class HiController {

@Autowired
SchedualServiceHi schedualServiceHi;
@RequestMapping(value = "/hi",method = RequestMethod.GET)
public String sayHi(@RequestParam String name){
return schedualServiceHi.sayHiFromClientOne(name);
}
}


启动程序,多次访问http://localhost:8765/hi?name=forezp,浏览器交替显示:

hi forezp,i am from port:8762

hi forezp,i am from port:8763

Feign源码解析:http://blog.csdn.net/forezp/article/details/73480304

本文源码下载:
https://github.com/forezp/SpringCloudLearning/tree/master/chapter3

五、参考资料

spring-cloud-feign

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